Logical Reasoning (Blood Relation) Practice Test – 1

Question 1:

Introducing a boy, a girl said, “He is the son of the daughter of the father of my uncle.” How is the boy related to the girl?

a) Brother

b) Nephew

c) Uncle

d) Son-in-law

Answer: Option A

Explanation:

The father of the boy’s uncle → the grandfather of the boy and daughter of the grandfather → sister of father.

Question 2 :

Each of these questions is based on the following information:

  1. A + B means A is the mother of B.
  2. A – B means A is the sister of B.
  3. A * B means A is the father of B.
  4. A β B means A is the brother of B.

If A + B means A is the brother of B; A – B means A is the sister of B and A x B means A is the father of B. Which of the following means that C is the son of M?

a) M – N x C + F

b) F – C + N x M

c) N + M – F x C

d) M x N – C + F

Answer: Option D

Explanation:

M x N → M is the father of N

N – C → N is the sister of C

and C + F → C is the brother of F.

Hence, M is the father of C or C is the son of M.

Question 3 :

If P + Q means P is the brother of Q; P x Q means P is the father of Q and P – Q means P is the sister of Q, which of the following relations shows that I is the niece of K?a) K + Y + Z – I

b) K + Y x I – Z

c) Z – I x Y + K

d) K x Y + I – Z

Answer: Option B

Explanation:

K + Y → K is the brother of Y

Y x I → Y is the father of I

Hence, → K is the uncle of I

and I – Z → I is the sister of Z

Hence, → I is the niece of K.

Question 4 :

If A $ B means A is the brother of B; A @ B means A is the wife of B; A # B means A is the daughter of B and A * B means A is the father of B, which of the following indicates that U is the father-in-law of P?

a) P @ Q $ T # U * W

b) P @ W $ Q * T # U

c) P @ Q $ W * T # U

d) P @ Q $ T # W * U

Answer: Option A

Explanation:

P @ Q → P is the wife of Q …(1)

Q $ T → Q is the brother of T …(2)

T # U → T is the daughter of U

Hence, → Q is the son of U …(3)

U * W → U is the father of W.

From (1) and (3), U is the father-in-law of P.

Question 5 :

A . B5D means B is the father of D.

B. B9D means B is the sister of D.

C. B4D means B is the brother of D.

D. B3D means B is the wife of D.

Which of the following means F is the mother of K?

a) F3M5K

b) F5M3K

c) F9M4N3K

d) F3M5N3K

Answer: Option A

Explanation:

F3M → F is the wife of M

M5K → M is the father of K

Therefore, F is the mother of K.

DI – How to Approach Pie Chart Problems in Data Interpretation

Analysis of Data Interpretation questions asked in previous exams

Exam No of Questions
In Clerk In PO
Prelims Mains Prelims Mains
IBPS RRB 15 5 10 20
SBI 10 20 10 20
BOB 5 10 15 10
RBI 15 20 10 15
No of Questions
SSC CGL 3 – 5
SSC CHSL 5

 

Kind of Data are represented as PIE CHARTS usually:

Pie charts are useful for displaying data that are classified into nominal or ordinal categories.

  1. Nominal data are categorized according to Descriptive or qualitative information such as county of birth or type of pet owned. Ordinal data are similar but the different categories can also be ranked, for example in a survey people may be asked to say whether they classed something as very poor, poor, fair, good, very good.
  2. Pie charts are generally used to show percentage or proportional data and usually the percentage represented by each category is provided next to the corresponding slice of pie.
  3. Pie charts are good for displaying data for around 6 categories or fewer. When there are more categories it is difficult for the eye to distinguish between the relative sizes of the different sectors and so the chart becomes difficult to interpret.

How to approach and get data from Pie charts?

Degree approach

The central angle  in circle represents 360° so any part or segment in a pie chart is calculated as a proportion of 360° .

Percentage Approach

In this case, any part or segment in a pie chart is calculates as a part of 100%.

Percentages Degree
Total 100% 360°
Hence 1% 3.6°
Kerala 10% 36°
Andhra Pradesh 20% 72°
Srilanka 25% 90°
Maharashtra 15% 54°
Tamil Nadu 30% 108°

 

  • Always keep in your Mind that in the circular Graph or Charts 100% =360 Degree .
  • Formulas and Full Concept of Percentage ,Average, Approx. Value and Ratio.
  • While solving keeps in mind that which Type of chart is using in the question this will help you to get the correct answer.
  • First Read the Question and try to interrupt in the question as the Topics says DATA INTERPRETATION.Because every bank wants the PO who can handle and Play with numbers of Figures just in few seconds and not just calculate it with closed eyes.
  • The whole of the DA concept is based on Calculation so if you want to be perfect in DA and DI don’t even use calculator at home while practicing.One who can calculate fast and accurate even Large numbers without calculator is 50% ready for the Any Aptitude test.
  • Try to use your mind while solving DA questions. Try to write only important Lines on the paper and Others just write and calculate in your Mind.This can be easily done by practicing More and More at Home.
  • Don’t feel confusing and no need to Try and Solve all the questions only Focus on questions with you are more familiar and you find yourself in such a way that you can solve the question accurately.
  • Try to solve all types of Questions while practicing this will not confuse you in the exam.

Beginners Level:

The Following piechart shows the amount of subscripttion generated for India Bonds from different category for investors.

  1. If the total investment flows from FII’s were to be doubled in the next year and the investment flows from all other sources had remained constant at their existing levels for this year, then what would be the proportion of FII investment in the total investment into India Bonds next year (in US $ millions) ?

Solution

FII’s currently account for 33 out of 100.

If their value is doubled and all other investments are kept constant then their new value would be 66 out of 133 = approximately equal to 50%

2. If the total investment other than by FII and corporate houses is Rs 335,000 then the investment by NRI’s and Offshore funds will be (approximately) ?

Solution

Investment other than NRI and corporate houses is 33% = 335000.

Also, investment by offshore funds and NRI’s is equal to 27%.

Hence, 27 x 335,000/33 = 274 090.909

3. What percentage of the total investment is coming from FII’s and NRI’s ?

Solution

(33 + 11) = 44

4. If the investment by NRI’s are Rs 4,000 then the investments by corporate houses and FII’s together is:

Solution

(67/11) x 4000 = 24 363.6364

In the corporate sector, approximately how many degrees should be there in the central angle ?

Solution

34 x 3.6 = 122.4 (since 1% = 3.6 degrees)

Intermediate Level :

The following pie-chart shows the percentage distribution of the expenditure incurred in publishing a book. Study the pie-chart and the answer the questions based on it.

  1. If the difference between the two expenditures are represented by 18º in the pie-chart, then these expenditures possibly are

Solution:

Central angle of 18º = (18/360)x100% of the total expenditure

= 5% of the total expenditure.

From the given chart it is clear that:

Out of the given combinations, only in combination (d) the difference is 5% i.e.

Paper Cost – Printing Cost = (25% – 20%) of the total expenditure

= 5% of the total expenditure.

2.Royalty on the book is less than the printing cost by:

Solution:

Printing Cost of book = 20% of C.P.Royalty on book 

= 155 of C.P.Difference 

= (20% of C.P)  (15% of C.P) =55 of C.P.

Percentage difference =(DifferencPrinting Cost×100) %                                                                    = (5% of C.Printing Cost×100)  % = 25%.         

3. If 5500 copies are published and the transportation cost on them amounts to Rs. 82500, then what should be the selling price of the book so that the publisher can earn a profit of 25%?

Solution:

For the publisher to earn a profit of 25%, S.P. = 125% of C.P.

Also Transportation Cost = 10% of C.P.

Let the S.P. of 5500 books be Rs. x.

Then, 10 : 125 = 82500

x => x = Rs.(125×82500)/10= Rs. 1031250.

Therefore S.P. of one book = Rs. 1031250/5500= Rs. 187.50 .

4. If for a certain quantity of books, the publisher has to pay Rs. 30,600 as printing cost, then what will be amount of royalty to be paid for these books?

Solution:

Let the amount of Royalty to be paid for these books be Rs. r.

Then, 20 : 15 = 30600 : r => r = Rs. (30600×15)/20

= Rs. 22,950.

5. What is the central angle of the sector corresponding to the expenditure incurred on Royalty?

Central angle corresponding to Royalty = (15% of 360)º

= (15/100)x360º

= 54º.

Expert Level:

Study the following Two Pie charts and answer the questions based on them.

  1. If in 1998, the population of villages Y and V increase by 10% each and the percentage of population below poverty line remains unchanged for all the villages, then find the population of village V below poverty line in 1998, given that the population of village in 1997 was 30000.

Solution:

Population of village Y in 1997 = 30000 (given).

Let the population of village V in 1997 be v.

Then, 15 : 10 = 30000 : v => v = (30000×10)/15= 20000.

Now, population of village V in 1998 = 20000 + (10% of 20000) = 22000.

Therefore Population of village V below poverty line in 1998 = 58% of 22000

= 12760.

2. Find the population of village S if the population of village X below poverty line in 1997 is 12160.

Solution:

Let the population of village X be x.

Then, 38% of x = 12160 => x = (12160×100)/38 = 32000.

Now, if s be the population of village S, then

16 : 11 = 32000 : s => s =(11×3200)/16= 22000.

3. If the population of village R in 1997 is 32000, then what will be the population of village Y below poverty line in that year?

Solution:

Let N be the total population of all seven villages.then, population of village T below  poverty line= 465 of (215 of N) and 

Population of village Z below the poverty line = 42% of(11% of N)

 Required ratio = 46% of (21% of N)42% of (11% of N) 

= 46×2142×11 = 22000.

4. If the population of village R in 1997 is 32000, then what will be the population of village Y below poverty line in that year?

Solution:

Population of village R = 32000 (given).

Let the population of village Y be y.

Then, 16 : 15 = 32000 : y => y = (15×32000)/16= 30000.

Therefore Population of village Y below poverty line = 52% of 30000 = 15600.

 

 

Ten Simple Way to tackle Reading Comprehension

[vc_row][vc_column][vc_cta h2=”Ten Ways for Better Scores on Bank Reading Passages “]Better scores on the Reading Comprehension questions in Bank Exam will generally feel elusive. There aren’t any “formulas” for Bank Exam Reading Comprehension, but as luck would have it there are some fast tips to raised Bank Exam scores on Reading Comprehension. These 10 tips will help you turn a foul Bank Exam score into a decent Bank Exam score.[/vc_cta][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_cta h2=”Focus on the gap and closing paragraphs of longer passages.” add_icon=”left” i_icon_fontawesome=”fa fa-search” i_color=”white” i_background_style=”rounded” i_background_color=”violet” i_size=”lg” i_on_border=”true”]The majority of the passages you’ll encounter on the reading comprehension questions of the bank exam are shorter, however one or two are longer. If you are running out of your time, read the opening and closing paragraphs and skim the center. the first and last paragraphs contain the passage’s main plan in most passages. you’ll be able to return and read body paragraphs more carefully as questions need it. Use context to assist you.[/vc_cta][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_cta h2=”Use context to help you.” add_icon=”left” i_icon_fontawesome=”fa fa-bars” i_color=”white” i_background_style=”rounded” i_background_color=”violet” i_size=”lg” i_on_border=”true”]If a question asks a few specific line, don’t return in to the passage and read simply that line. a good rule of thumb is to read at least two sentences before and after the line in question. this will provide you with a plan of where the point started and where the author is going with it.[/vc_cta][vc_cta h2=”Save unfamiliar passages for last. ” add_icon=”left” i_icon_fontawesome=”fa fa-search” i_color=”white” i_background_style=”rounded” i_background_color=”violet” i_size=”lg” i_on_border=”true”]The bank exam passages can cover a range of subjects, from history to science to literature. Like with any question type, do the questions that are easier first and save the tougher ones for last. every question is definitely worth the same quantity, thus you don’t need to waste an enormous chunk of your time on a passage with some questions once you may answer double as several questions on easier passages. If science passages are confusing to you, return to it one after you’ve completed the rest. the nice factor about the bank exam is that it allows you to skip around among an area, thus use this to your advantage.[/vc_cta][vc_cta h2=”Save unfamiliar passages for last. ” add_icon=”left” i_icon_fontawesome=”fa fa-question” i_color=”white” i_background_style=”rounded” i_background_color=”violet” i_size=”lg” i_on_border=”true”]The bank exam passages can cover a range of subjects, from history to science to literature. Like with any question type, do the questions that are easier first and save the tougher ones for last. every question is definitely worth the same quantity, thus you don’t need to waste an enormous chunk of your time on a passage with some questions once you may answer double as several questions on easier passages. If science passages are confusing to you, return to it one after you’ve completed the rest. the nice factor about the bank exam is that it allows you to skip around among an area, thus use this to your advantage.[/vc_cta][vc_cta h2=”Really understand what the question is asking.” add_icon=”left” i_icon_fontawesome=”fa fa-lightbulb-o” i_color=”white” i_background_style=”rounded” i_background_color=”violet” i_size=”lg” i_on_border=”true”]Reading comprehension questions have the most “gray area” of any question type on the bank exam. Some people skim through the question, not extremely understanding what it is specifically asking, begin reading the solution decisions, and decide the first one that sounds true. this is not a good strategy – repeatedly more than one answer alternative can ring true or part true with the passage, but just one will specifically and best answer that specific question.[/vc_cta][vc_cta h2=”Do not bring in outside knowledge.” add_icon=”left” i_icon_fontawesome=”fa fa-list” i_color=”white” i_background_style=”rounded” i_background_color=”violet” i_size=”lg” i_on_border=”true”]The bank exam does not require you to have any outside knowledge for the reading comprehension passages, so check any you have at the door. Your own biases might actually hurt you when answering the questions, especially if it is an opinion passage.[/vc_cta][vc_cta h2=”Note how bank exam vocabulary is used in the sentence.” add_icon=”left” i_icon_fontawesome=”fa fa-quote-right” i_color=”white” i_background_style=”rounded” i_background_color=”violet” i_size=”lg” i_on_border=”true”]You will encounter some “vocabulary in context” questions wherever you may incline attainable definitions of a vocabulary word within the passage. There is also quite one answer alternative that provides an accurate definition for the vocabulary word, however just one alternative can work the word during this specific context. Notice however the word is employed within the sentence, and connect the solution selections to check that one works best.[/vc_cta][vc_cta h2=”For “Select One or More Answer Choices“ questions, consider each choice separately.” add_icon=”left” i_icon_fontawesome=”fa fa-ellipsis-h” i_color=”white” i_background_style=”rounded” i_background_color=”violet” i_size=”lg” i_on_border=”true”]For some of the reading comprehension questions, you will have to choose one, two, or three of the answers. This format can lead you to second-guess yourself more than with a typical multiple-choice question where you can eliminate choices decisively. To avoid these issues, consider each choice separately and only select it if you feel that it could be the only correct answer to the question.[/vc_cta][vc_cta h2=”Underline and take notes as you read.” add_icon=”left” i_icon_fontawesome=”fa fa-pagelines” i_color=”white” i_background_style=”rounded” i_background_color=”violet” i_size=”lg” i_on_border=”true”]Read the passage actively. Underline key words or sentences that contain the main idea. Jot down any notes, probably just a word or two, that you think might help you. If the author is taking a side on a certain issue, write a positive or negative sign next to the passage to remind yourself later what his or her position is.[/vc_cta][vc_cta h2=”Avoid extreme answers.” add_icon=”left” i_icon_fontawesome=”fa fa-exclamation-circle” i_color=”white” i_background_style=”rounded” i_background_color=”violet” i_size=”lg” i_on_border=”true”]Generally, if a solution choice sounds very extreme in tone, it’s not the simplest choice. Be cautious of answers that use words like never, always, completely, etc. There’s usually an exception to the rule[/vc_cta][vc_cta h2=”Don’t make assumptions.” add_icon=”left” i_icon_fontawesome=”fa fa-share-square-o” i_color=”white” i_background_style=”rounded” i_background_color=”violet” i_size=”lg” i_on_border=”true”]Inferring and assumptive aren’t the same thing. when you infer, you create an inference supported the information within the passage. when you assume, you create an assumption that brings in outside data or biases and is not based entirely on the given passage. an assumption could seem valid, but if you can’t back it up with statements from the passage, it’s most likely best to stay faraway from it.[/vc_cta][vc_cta h2=”Beginner Level” h4=”This is the sample example for Beginner Level . My name is Ben and I come from Australia. I am 24 years old and I live in a small town near Sydney called Branton. I don’t have a job now, but normally I clean shop windows. I am not married but I live with my very beautiful girlfriend, Maria, in a nice house in Branton. We don’t have any children…maybe next year. My girlfriend is an actress, but she isn’t very famous. She acts in a small theatre in our town. At the weekend, we like to go swimming in a big lake near our house. I normally get up at eight o’clock, but on Thursday I get up at six o’clock because that is the day when I go running in the park.
” shape=”round”]1. Ben lives in Sydney, Australia.?

Ans : Ben lives in Sydney, Australia. FALSE, HE LIVES IN BRANTON, NEAR SYDNEY.

2. Ben is 26 years old.

Ans :Ben is 26 years old. FALSE, HE IS 24 YEARS OLD.

3. What do they do at the weekend?

Ans :THEY GO SWIMMING IN A BIG LAKE NEAR THEIR HOUSE.

4. When does Ben go running?

Ans :HE GOES RUNNING ON THURSDAY MORNINGS.

5. Where does Ben live?

Ans :HE LIVES IN THE TOWN OF BRANTON, NEAR SYDNEY.[/vc_cta][vc_cta h2=”Intermediate Level” h4=”(This is the Sample Example for Intermediate Level). Every year, Sweden publishes everyone’s income tax returns. So do Finland and Norway. And nobody really cares. By contrast, U.S. law prohibits releasing anybody’s tax information. Imagine the howl if the IRS put tax returns online, so co-workers, neighbors and mothers-in-law could see what someone earns. That happened in Italy earlier this year, when the outgoing government of prime minister Romano Prodi briefly posted taxpayers’ incomes on the Internet, and newspapers picked up the list. Two weeks ago, Sweden published the tax returns of ordinary wage-earners. In November or December, Swedes can see how much high-rollers made — with their income from dividends and other investments — plus how much they paid in taxes for 2007. Sweden’s policy of making tax returns public — as in Finland and Norway — stems from a tradition of open records and transparency in government, except in cases of national security and some aspects of criminal investigations. “The right of public access to documents is laid down in the constitution,“ Graner says of Sweden’s practice since the 18th century. Making the data public demonstrates the Scandinavian belif that nobody is better than anyone else, says Veera Heinonen, spokeswoman for the Finish Embassy in London. “Finland is a very egalitarian country, and it’s a very high-tax society, so it provides checks and balances,“ Heinonen says. She says people’s earnings can be a good source of gossip. Is anybody embarrassed? “Well, maybe some chief executives,“ she says. Ida Ragnarsson, 22, of Helsingborg, Sweden, says she doesn’t mind if anyone sees what she earns. Ragnarsson, who coaches sales people, says she has checked up on her family. “It’s fun to know how much they earn,“ she says. Italians didn’t think so in April when Vincenzo Visco, a deputy economy minister who spearheaded Italy’s fight against tax evasion, posted 2005 tax returns on the agency’s website. The gesture, Visco told Italian news organizations, was to encourage greater “transparency and democracy.“ The information was quickly removed from the website, but it was available long enough for newspapers to grab and publish figures about the rich. Philip Lindquist, 19, a student in Stockholm, says he doesn’t understand the fuss in Italy. “The model on which Sweden is built demands this“ public information, he says.” shape=”round”]1. According to the article, Italians:                                                                Ans: didn’t want their tax return information to be made public.

2.Why do the Scandinavian countries make everyone’s tax information public?       Ans: Because they have a tradition of open records and transparency in government.

3.An individual’s tax information might not be published if:

Ans: there’s an ongoing criminal investigation.

4.How long has this been going on in Sweden?

Ans: Since the 18th Century

5.Is this likely to happen in the United States?

Ans:No, this is against the law in the United States.[/vc_cta][vc_cta h2=”Advance Level” h4=”( This is the Sample Example for Experts). Safety At The Sea Forget razor fish. The lesser weever is the fish to look out for on British beaches. The fish, which has venomous spines on its gills and dorsal fin, is common in many areas of the UK, including the Cardigan Bay area of Wales. It lies virtually buried in the sand with just its mouth and fin exposed, a trap for hapless fishermen and beachgoers wading around in the shallows. If you stand on a weever fish, you are likely to feel a sharp prick-like sensation which gets worse and spreads along your leg, often causing swelling. Allergy Many people have an allergic reaction to the fish and may start to sweat, develop a rapid pulse and feel nauseous as the poison gets further into the body. Some people collapse as a result. Others can develop chest pain, although the sting is not fatal. People who have been stung should take painkillers and if they develop an allergic reaction to the sting, a course of antihistamines is recommended. Other common poisonous fish on Britain’s beaches include jelly fish and the stingray, which, if disturbed, can use its tail to venomous effect. Sea currents But fish are the least of your worries on the beach. The force of the sea is much more dangerous than anything swimming about inside it. Over the weekend, two people nearly drowned in the Bournemouth area after getting out of their depth swimming. One was just 16 years old. They are both now in stable condition in hospital. “We were much more hit by that than sunburn cases where the message seems to be getting home,“ said a spokesman for the Royal Bournemouth Hospital. In other areas, the situation was less dramatic with a handful of sunburn and sprained ankles reported in other sunspots, including Cornwall, Blackpool and Brighton. Coastguards are warning the public not to swim if there is a red flag flying on a beach and to find out about local tides and currents. Safe swimming The Coastguard Agency says people should not swim if they feel unwell, for at least an hour after a meal, if they have been drinking alcohol or if they are cold and tired. They also warn against swimming alone, swimming too far out to sea and snorkling if you have breathing problems. And you should avoid cliff edges, even on gentle slopes, when they have been dampened by sea spray. One organisation that aims to help swimmers who get into trouble is the UK’s answer to Baywatch, the Surf Lifesaving Association of Great Britain. Founded in 1955 and based on an idea originated in Australia, it now has 81 branches and has made 17,500 rescues. The association has three types of member: Nippers (aged eight to 12), Junior (aged 12 to 16) and Seniors and Masters. Its motto is ‘Vigilance and Service’. All members are surfers trained in lifesaving skills. They paddle out across the waves to save struggling swimmers. Most of their money comes from fundraising events, but local councils also provide some funding. Another danger on the beach is pollution. A recent survey of UK beaches showed more than 10% are failing to meet minimum standards for clean water. The Marine Conservation Society said raw sewage was still being pumped into the sea in some areas and was findiing its way onto beaches. But the water companies say the society’s standards are too tough and that 90% of British beaches pass European standards.” shape=”round”]

  1. Which of these is NOT true of the lesser weever?

It buries itself deep in the sand.

2.Which of these people should be safe swimming?

A person who has celebrated with non-alcoholic beer.

3.Why does the Coastguard Agency suggest people keep away from cliffs?

People could fall off them.

4. What sentence best summarises the pollution situation on UK beaches?

There are some very dirty beaches, but most are fine.

5.Which of these is the more serious danger on a British beach?

Deep water.[/vc_cta][/vc_column][/vc_row]

Solving Ordering and Ranking Arrangement

Ordering and Ranking Arrangement is an important topic from the point of view of SBI, IBPS,  SSC , RBI and other competitive exams.

When we are doing order and ranking we know basically two type of symbols first is greater than(>)and the other one is less than(<). To solve these questions we only know the three things:

Formulas to  determine the positioning of a person

  • Left + Right = Total + 1
  • Left = Total + 1 – Right
  • Right = 1 + 1 – left
  • Total = left + Right

Ranking Arrangement

Let discuss about ‘D’

D’s rank from top = 4 and from bottom = 3

Now total rank = 6

Means total rank = (rank from top + rank from bottom) – 1

Now rank from top = (total rank + 1) – rank from both

Rank from bottom = (total rank + 1) – rank from top

Solving the Problems in various Types

Type 1

Total number of persons = (sum of positions of same person from both sides i.e. left and right side) – 1

Example

In a row of persons, position of A from left side of the row is 27th and position of A from right side of the row is 34th. Find total no. of persons in the row?

Solution:

Total no. of students = (Position of A from left + Position of A from right) -1

⇒Total no. of students = (27 + 34) – 1 = 61 – 1 = 60

Type 2

Total no. of persons = No. of persons after or before the given person in a row + Position of same person from the other side

Example

1. In a row of persons, position of A from left side of the row is 27th and there are 5 persons after A in the row. Find total no. of persons in the row?

Solution:

No. of persons in the row = Position of A from left + No. of persons after A

⇒ Total no. of persons = 27 + 5 = 32

Type 3

In the questions where it is asked to find minimum no. of persons in a row then it is always a case of overlapping i.e. given positions of persons from either sides overlap each other.

Then ,Minimum no. of persons = Sum of positions of persons from both sides – Persons between them – 2

Example

If position of A from left side of a row is 15th and position of B from right side of a row is 19th and only 1 person is sitting in middle of A & B. Find the minimum number of persons that can be seated in this row?

Solution: Total no. of persons = 15 + 19 – 1 – 2 = 31.

Type 4

If total no. of students is to be calculated and positions of different persons from any side are given then it is always a case of ‘cannot be determined’ or ‘data inadequate’ or ‘can’t say’. This is because we do not know if there is overlapping or not.

Example

In a row Position of A from left side of the row is 18th and position of B from right side of the row is 25th. Find the total no. of students in the row?

Solution:

Cannot be determined as position of different persons is given from the same side.

Type 5

Positions of two persons is given and their positions are interchanged and after interchanging position of 1st person is given from same side as before interchanging

  • Position of 2nd person from the same side as before interchanging = Position of 2nd person from same side before interchanging + (Position of 1st person after interchanging – position of 1st person before interchanging from same side)
  • To find total no. of students Þ Find the person whose position from both sides can be depicted from the statement. Add both his positions from opposite ends and subtract 1.
  • To find no. of persons between them Þ Difference in the position of common person whose position from same side before and after interchanging is given then subtract 1

Example

A and B are standing in a row of persons. A is 18th from left side of the row and B is 24th from right side of the row. If they interchange their positions A becomes 31st from left. Find

  1. i) New position of B from right side
    ii) Total no. of persons
    iii) No. of persons between A & B

Solution:

i) New position of B from right side = Position of B from right side before interchanging + (Position of A from left side after interchanging – Position of A from left side before interchanging)

⇒ New position of B from right side = 24 + (31 – 18) = 24 + 13 = 37th

ii) Total no. of persons = (A’s position from right before interchanging + A’s position from left before interchanging) – 1

⇒ Total no. of persons = (B’s position from right after interchanging + A’s position from left before interchanging) – 1

⇒ Total no. of persons = (24 + 31) – 1 = 55 – 1 = 54

iii) No. of persons between A & B = (Position of A from left after interchanging– Position of A from left before interchanging) – 1

⇒ No. of persons between A & B = (31 – 18) – 1 = 13 – 1 = 12

Type 6

If positions of two different persons are given from opposite sides of the row and a third person is sitting exactly in middle of the two and total no. of persons in the row is to be calculated as

i) When position of third person sitting is given from either side of row

ii) When position of third person is given from either of the two persons between whom he/she is sitting

Then find the position of the 3rd person from both sides of the row and hence find total no. of persons according to type 1

Example

 In a row of persons, position of A from left side of the row is 9th & position of B from right side of the row is 8th.If C is sitting just in middle of A & B and position of C from left side of the row is 15th. Find the total no. of persons in the row?

Solution:

Position of C from left is 15th and A from left is 9th so there are (15 – 9 – 1 = 5) persons are sitting between A and C. As C is sitting in middle of A and B so there must also be 5 persons sitting between B and C.

Thus position of C from right = Position of B from right + 5 + 1 = 8 + 6 = 14th

Total no. of students = (Sum of positions of C from both sides – 1)

⇒ Total no. of students = (15 + 14) – 1 = 29 – 1 = 28

Type 7

When the positions of two persons are given from opposite ends and we know the total number of persons, then two cases arise when trying to determine the number of persons between these two persons –

  1. When there is no overlapping: i.e. the sum of positions of the two persons from opposite ends < total number of persons
  2. When there is overlapping: i.e. the sum of positions of the two persons from opposite ends > total number of persons

Case i)
No. of students between two different persons = Total no. of students – (Sum of positions of two different persons from opposite sides)

Example

 In a row of 54 persons, A is 15th from the left side of the row and B is 20th from the right side of the row. Find the no. of persons sitting between A and B?

Solution:

Here Sum of positions of A & B from opposite ends = 15 + 20 = 35 < Total no. of persons

∴ No. of persons between A & B = Total no. of students – (Position of A from left + Position of B from right)

⇒ No. of persons between A & B = 54 – (15+20) = 54 – 35 = 19

Case ii)

No. of students between two different persons = (Sum of positions of two different persons from opposite sides) – Total no. of students – 2

Example

 In a row of 54 persons, A is 35th from the left side of the row and B is 22nd from the right side of the row. Find the no. of persons sitting between A and B?

Solution:

Here Sum of positions of A & B from opposite ends = 35 + 22 = 57 > Total no. of persons

∴ No. of persons between A & B = (Position of A from left + Position of B from right) – Total no. of students – 2

⇒ No. of persons between A & B = (35+22) – 54 – 2 = 57 – 54 – 2 = 1

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Short Tricks for Input Output in Reasoning to Save time

What is Input/Output For Reasoning?

One of the most scoring questions in any Banking exam is Input-Output. The questions based on Input-Output are being asked in almost all kind of Banking Examinations on a regular basis.

But for the sake of the Bank PO exams, it is important to concentrate on the questions that are mixes of words and numbers. Learning short tricks to handle these types of questions will significantly boost your reasoning score.

Solving Method for Input Output in Reasoning:

As mentioned above no matter how they give only these two type of changes they will follow in rearranging the pattern.

  1. Replacing both elements at a time.
  2. Changing the places

Ex:
Input: 12 hint 43 locate farm 53 junk
Step I: junk hint 43 locate farm 53 12

Shifting means just replacing only one element from its position.
Ex:
Input: 12 hint 43 locate farm 53 junk
Step I: junk 12 hint 43 locate farm 53

Step VII is the final step of the input. The underlined words are used to indicate the words that will be interchanged in the each subsequent step.

Basically Asked Questions Types for Input and Output :

  • Arranging the Numbers and words either in Ascending/Descending order or Dictionary order.
  • All words at one End and all numbers at one end or vice versa.
  • Others come as a mix of words and numbers.
  • Otherwise Only Word or Number series will be given in Input and Output Questions.
  • More complicated ones may even involve symbols.

Example 1:
Input: hike 35 29 rate interest 43 fixed 46  ( SBI PO Mains)

Words are arranged alphabetically (forward or reversed) as per their positions in the dictionary while numbers are arranged in ascending/descending order.
Step 1:   46 hike 35 29 rate interest 43 fixed
Step 2:   fixed 46 hike 35 29 rate interest 43
Step 3:   43 fixed 46 hike 35 29 rate interest
Step 4:   hike 43 fixed 46 35 29 rate interest
Step 5:   35 hike 43 fixed 46 29 rate interest
Step 6:   interest 35 hike 43 fixed 46 29 rate
Step 7:   29 interest 35 hike 43 fixed 46 rate
Step 8:   rate 29 interest 35 hike 43 fixed 46

  • Here first you have observe how Last step is i.e STEP VIII. One Word and One Number alternate rearrangement. Also words are arranged in Alphabetically Descending order and numbers in Ascending order.
  • Now see Step I and Step II. In first one biggest number among them is SHIFTED from last to first and in second one Word is shifted i.e only one element was moved in each.
  • By this you know how the rearrangement process is taken and you can solve the question in no time.

For all this process you require less than a minute, for solving actual input less than 2 minutes (if it requires 8 to 10 steps for output) and finally just by glancing you can save a lot of time like this.

Example 2:

Input: 22 care 59 never 87 sold 15 land house 43 (SBI PO mains)

Step I: care 22 59 never 87 sold 15 land house 43
Step II: care 15 22 59 never 87 sold land house 43
Step III: care 15 house 22 59 never 87 sold land 43
Step IV: care 15 house 22 land 59 never 87 sold 43
Step V: care 15 house 22 land 43 59 never 87 sold
Step VI: care 15 house 22 land 43 never 59 87 sold
Step V: care 15 house 22 land 43 never 59 sold 87
Step V is the last step of the given input.

After observing the arrangement, we can conclude that in first step; word is arranged in left side in ascending order and in second step number is arranged in left side in increasing order. The process continues till the last step.

Output : After arranging word “house” in step III our next arrangement will be “22”, but is already come in its place without arranging, so we will not count 22 in our next step and move to word “land” which will be arrange step IV.

The same case is repeated in step VI, after arranging the word “never” our next arrangement will be “59”, but is already come in its place without arranging, so we will not count 59 in our next step and move to word “sold” which will be arrange step V.

Example 3

Input: more 40 great and 60 74 will (SBI PO mains)

Step I: 74 more 40 great 60 will and
Step II: 74 60 more 40 will and great
Step III: 74 60 40 will and great more
Step IV: 74 60 40 and great more will
Step IV: is the last step of the arrangement of the above input as the intended rearrangement is obtained.

After observing the arrangement, we can conclude that in each steps; the numbers are arranging in decreasing order on the left end and words are arranging in alphabetic order on the right end. The process continues till the last steps.

Output : In arrangement problems, we cannot find previous step. If Step IV or Step V is given and in question and it was asked to find the previous step, we cannot find it. So, our answer will be cannot determined.

Points to Remember

For arranging the logic of arrangement you are advised to follow a certain things.

Have a glance at the first and the last step. This will give you a rough idea of what really happened in between the steps.

  1. Have a quick glance at every step to know how this is being carried out.
  2. Rearrange the given input step by step or if required move from final step to the input.

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