Steps taken by Indian Govt. to reduce global warming
Energy challenges are intensifying not only because of climate change, but because of growing demands in fast emerging economies like India.
As India enjoys strong growth, it’s no surprise that consumers demand greater reliability from their energy suppliers, and that the climate change agenda is seen as an opportunity for industry and jobs. But it means that energy companies and policy makers are under more pressure and demands for more Government intervention in energy sector.
Energy Sector Interventions
The Objective of energy sector interventions is to Mitigate the GHG emissions by improving energy efficiency and adopting cleaner sources of energy
Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY) :
• 10 Cr household of the 24 Cr still use biomass such as firewood and cow dung for cooking which causes hazardous pollution damaging the health of the household members and the environment.
• Government plans to provide free LPG connections to 5 Cr BPL households to reduce their dependence on the polluting cooking fuel
Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC), 2017 :
• Developed by Power Ministry and BEE, ECBC seeks to promote low carbon growth by integrating the renewable energy sources in the design of the buildings.
• For a building to be ECBC compliant it has to show at least 25% savings in the energy consumption.
• It is estimated that adoption of ECBC throughout the country would reduce at least 50% of the energy use by 2030.
Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment (GRIHA) :
• It evaluates the environmental performance of a building wholistically over its entire life cycle, thereby providing a definitive standard for what constitutes a green building
• GRIHA, developed by The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) has been adopted by government as the national rating system for the green building
Unnat Jyoti by Affordable Lighting for All (UJALA) :
• To promote efficient lighting, enhance awareness on using efficient equipment which reduce electricity bills and help preserve environment.
• Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL) is responsible for distributing the subsidized LED bulbs through state distribution companies of India to promote the use of energy efficient bulbs.
Renewable energy development
All conventional resources use a scarce resource which is expected to exaust in near future. Even Hydro power falls in this category as water is a scarce resource and we have seen that countries are having hard time securing their future water needs.
Renewable sources on the other hand, uses resources which are abundant from nature. Wind and Solar resource won’t exhaust even if it is exploited fully. Other renewable sources are biomass, compressed natural gas geothermal power etc
India has set the target of adding 175 GW of renewable energy capacity by 2022 over and above the 30 GW installed now
• Solar cities: Reduce a minimum of 10% of the projected energy demand of the city through renewable energy installations using wind, solar and municipal waste and energy efficiency measures.
• Ultra mega solar parks: These are a series of planned solar power projects each with capacity of more than 500 MW. Government plans to establish 25 such plants adding 20GW of the solar power capacity.
• National Biofuel Policy: It seeks to achieve 20% of the ethanol blending and promote the use of non-food feedstock for the production of the biofuels. Presently there is only 5% of the ethanol blending.
• National Offshore Wind Energy Policy 2015: India has successfully developed the onshore wind power program with installation of the 23 GW power supply. The new policy seeks to develop wind farm deeper into the sea to reduce the dependence on the land for the wind energy.
• Renewable Purchase Obligation: It makes it legally binding for the distribution companies of India to source some share of their power requirement from the renewable sources.
Nuclear power program :
• India currently sources almost 2% of its energy needs from the nuclear energy. The 3 stage nuclear power program, when complete will make India self-sufficient in the nuclear fuel since it holds 25% of the world’s Thorium reserves.
• Nuclear power is essential to replace coal as the source of base load power since other renewable sources have the limitation of being isolated
• Government recently cleared 10 nuclear power reactors with a net capacity of 7000 MW
Industrial Sector Schemes Objective:
Reducing emissions from the automobiles
• National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP):
Achieve national fuel security by promoting hybrid and electric vehicles in the country and simultaneously reduce emissions from the vehicles running on the hydrocarbons. It targets to achieve 6-7 million sales of hybrid and electric vehicles year on year from 2020 onwards
• Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) Electric Vehicles (FAME):
It seeks to support hybrid/electric vehicles market development and Manufacturing eco-system. The scheme has 4 focus areas i.e. Technology development, Demand Creation, Pilot Projects and Charging Infrastructure.
Increasing the green cover:
1. River inter-linking program
• Help in addressing the problems due to disasters such as drought and floods and increase area under the irrigation channel
2. National Green Highway Mission:
• Planting trees along the national highway by dividing the 1% project cost. This green belt would also act as a green muffler for the noise pollution, store CO2 and provide livelihood opportunities to the communities nearby the highways
3. CAMPA Act:
• Compensatory Afforestation Management and Planning Authority will recover the Net Present Value (NPV), Afforestation cost and other project specific cost from the industrial projects that require diversion of the forest land for the non-forest purpose.
Financial tools adopted:
1. Polluter Pay Principle
• According to the principle, a person or a company will pay for the damages done to the environment and community due to their activities
2. Carbon tax
• Tax imposed on the users of the fossil fuels such as coal
• Imposed in India in the form of a Cess on coal (Clean Environment Cess) at Rs. 400/ton
3. Energy Saving Certificates (ESCerts)
• Under the Perform, Achieve and Trade (PAT) mechanism, major energy consuming industries are assigned energy efficiency targets
• Any industry achieving the efficiency in the excess of their target can trade the excess on Indian energy exchange to monetize it
4. Green Bonds
• It allows the industry to raise capital from the market to fund green projects such as for renewable energy projects. It will help raise low cost debt to meet the massive requirement of $200 billion for the renewable energy projects.
5. National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change (NAFCC)
• To assist State and UTs particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change in meeting the cost of adaptation. NABARD has been appointed as National Implementing Entity for the fund
6. National Clean Energy Fund (NCEF)
• Fund has been created using the carbon tax on coal for funding R&D projects in clean energy technologies of public or private sector. An assistance of up to 40% of the total project cost will be provided either in the form of loan or grants.