Industries of India – Part 1
- This industry Uses natural raw material as its final product.
- For Examples Hunting, pastoral activities, fishing, forestry, agriculture etc.
It Makes complex products using the material obtained from primary industry for example :
- Steel → Automobiles, Railway engines
- Wooden Pulp → Rayon
Secondary Industry can be sub classified into
- Heavy Industries
- Light industries
- It is not a branch of manufacturing sector but sells the product of primary and secondary industries via transport, trading, wholesale & retailing
- Basically it includes Service providers.
- For ex : tourism, education, entertainment, advertisements, consultancy, Administration, healthcare etc.
Various Factors responsible for the location of industries
- Availability of Raw Material
- Power Resources
- Availability of water
- Availability of Market
- Government Policies
The agro based industries totally contribute approx. 17.32% to Indian GDP
- It provides jobs to large segment of population and it can be started with low investment
- Helps to earn additional income for rural people
- Use local raw material ensures Optimum utilization of national resources
- Generate seasonal as well as perennial employment for Labour
- Play significant role in our national economy
- Near raw material – Dependent on bamboo, softwood
- E.g. South Gujarat, Odisha, MP
- Near market Kolkata : Raw material brought from North Eastern States, cheap labor, coal, water available
- Lucknow : Depend on bagasse (from sugar mills rags) wheat bran & Sabai grass brought from Tarai region
Cotton and Textile Industry
Cotton as a raw material is lightweight & non-perishable
- Cotton changed to yarn/textile Hardly incurs any weight loss
- Therefore, proximity to raw material site is not essential
- factors become more important in industrial location viz. nearness to market, nearness to water body (for dyeing, bleaching) , Energy to run power looms and textile machines, cheap Labor supply & availability of capital/finance.
- In dry climate, the cotton-threads will break quickly during spinning. So, cotton textiles were setup near coastal areas.
- Major Cotton Industry location in India is in Mumbai, Ahmadabad and Coimbatore.
- India has vast Labor & market to match silk farming
- India grows all important varieties of silk viz. Mulberry, Tasar, Oak Tasar, Eri and Muga
- Mulberry silk → Mainly in Southern states (Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh) + WB + J & K
- Non Mulberry → Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Odisha + North East
Jute Industry West Bengal (India)
|Raw material||90% of Jute is cultivated in the Kolkata hinterland
Jute is the only crop that can withstand flooding of this region
|Water||Jute processing require large quantity of water for washing, bleaching & retting
Easily available from Hubly river
|Labour||Jute-processing is Labour intensive
Cheap Labour available from Bihar, Odisha, W Bengal
Nature of Raw material
- Sugar mills are located near sugar growing areas, because of two factors
- Perishable → Sugarcane contains sucrose & once you cut the sugarcane, the sucrose content starts to decline. Hence raw material must be quickly transported.
- Weight loss → Sugar accounts for only ~10% of the bulky sugarcane and therefore it is prohibitively expensive to transport sugarcane over long-distance in its original form.
|Process||Sugarcane is crushed between rollers and gives Sugar juice
Sugar juice + lime + boiling → Crystallization of sugar
|Output||Raw coarse brown sugar Needs further refining
Bagasse is Used as Fodder, Energy Fuel, & in Paper pulp industry
Molasses is Used to produce ethanol
|Location Principle||E.g. in Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, South Gujarat, Karnataka, TN, Andhra Pradesh|
Tea plantation Industry
- Weeding, manure, pruning and plucking → tedious job + need skill + patience
- Cheap Labour force is essential
- Since tea has to be grown in hill slopes, mechanization is not possible
- Even while drying, rolling, fermentation, grading and packaging of tea, skilled manpower needed
- Therefore, tea plantation is done near areas with high population density
- Tea leaves to tea, involves considerable weight loss
- Hence tea processing is done in the estate/plantation itself
- Further blending/repacking could be done at break of the bulk location
- Frost damages the leaves & Very long winter retards plant growth hence decreases yield
- Doesn’t like stagnant water
- Hence, has to be grown on highland or hill slopes
- for e.g. hills of Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri (West Bengal) & Nilgiri (Tamil Nadu)
- In the next lesson we would see about the other industry sectors