POONA PACT OF 1932
■ As Mahatma Gandhi went on to hunger strike Dr Ambedkar was under tremendous pressure to save the life Gandhi.
■ Hence Dr. Ambedkar accepted for an agreement.
■ This is an agreement between the Dalit’s of India led by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar and the upper caste Hindus of India.
■ This took place on September 24, 1932 at Yeravada jail.
■ Under Poona pact of 1932 there shall be seats reserved for the depressed classes out of general electoral seats in the provincial legislature.
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT OF 1935:
■ The GOI Act 1935 prescribed a Federation.
■ The GOI act 1935 divided the powers into
Federal List (59)
Provincial List (54)
Concurrent List (36)
■ The residuary powers were vested with the Viceroy.
■ The GOI act of 1935 abolished the diarchy in provinces.
■ The GOI act of 1935 provided the diarchy at the center. (This did not come into operation).
■ The responsible government was introduced in provinces. The Executive authority of the province was also exercised by the Governor on behalf of the crown and not as a subordinate of the Governor-General.
■ The GOI act of 1935 introduced bicameralism (2 house, Upper and lower) in 6 out of 11 provinces. This was Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
■ In the rest of the provinces the legislature was unicameral.
■ This act extended separate electorate for depressed classes (SC’s), Women and labor.
■ This act extended the franchise (Right to vote). With this 10% of the population got the voting right.
■ The GOI 1935 granted limited franchise on the basis of tax, property and education.
■ The GOI act of 1935 provided for the establishment of Reserve Bank of India (RBI) in the year 1935.
■ Establishment of RBI was recommended by Hilton-Young Commission in the year 1926.
■ The RBI in the year 1935 was set up at Calcutta (Kolkata).
■ In the year 1937 RBI was shifted to Bombay (Mumbai).
■ The GOI act of 1935 provided for the establishment of Provincial and Joint Public Service Commission.
■ The GOI act also provided for the establishment of Federal Court.
■ The Federal Court was set up in the year 1937 in Delhi.
■ The seat of the Federal court was the Chamber of Princes in the Parliament building in Delhi.
■ The first Chief Justice of the Federal Court was Maurice Gwyer.
■ (Note: The present Supreme Court was established on January 28, 1950).
INDIAN INDEPENDENCE ACT OF 1947:
■ On February 20, 1947 the Prime Minister of England Sir Clement Atlee declared that the British rule in India would end by June 30, 1948.
■ The Muslim League demanded for the partition.
■ On June 3, 1947 the government announced that the constitution is not applicable to unwilling parts of the nation.
■ Lord Mount Batten (then Viceroy) put forth the partition plan on the same day. It is called Mountbatten plan. (This is also called June 3 plan).
■ This plan was accepted by both congress and Muslim league.
■ The Indian Independence Act of 1947 ended the British rule and declared India as an independent and sovereign state from August 15, 1947.
■ This act provided for the partition of the country into India and Pakistan.
■ The office of Viceroy was abolished and provided for the Governor-General for each dominion (India and Pakistan) appointed by the king.
■ This act also empowered the constituent assemblies to frame and adopt any constitution.
■ The Central legislature of India composed of the legislative assembly and the council of states ceased to exist on August 14, 1947.
■ The Indian Independence Act granted freedom to the princely states either to join India or Pakistan or to remain independent.
■ The civil servants were allowed to entitled all the benefits.
■ Lord Mountbatten became the first Governor-General of independent India.
■ Jawaharlal Nehru was sworn in as the first Prime Minister of India by Lord Mount Batten.
■ Muhammad Ali Jinnah became the first Governor-General of Pakistan.