The Conquest of Mysore:
British expansion of Power in Mysore :
Haider Ali started his career as a soldier in the Mysore state, where he later became the Faujdar of Dindigul. With the help of the French he was able to establish a modern arsenal in Dindigul. And in 1761, Haider Ali overthrew the Nanjaraja, the prime minister of Wodeyar kingdom under King Krishnaraja I. He kept recognizing the king as lawful ruler.
For the conquest of Mysore, the English fought four wars with Mysore, let us look at them one by one.
First Anglo Mysore War (1767-69):
Battle fought Year: 1767–1769
It came to an end with Treaty of Madras ( 2 April 1769 between Mysore and the British(Lord Verelst) East India Company )
Winner: Hyder Ali (Mysore)
Loser: Lord Verelst (East India Company)
The First Anglo–Mysore War was a conflict in India between the Sultanate of Mysore and the East India Company. The war was instigated in part by the machinations of Asaf Jah II, the Nizam of Hyderabad, who sought to divert the company’s resources from attempts to gain control of the Northern Circars.
A tripartite alliance was formed against Haider Ali by the Britishers, the Nizam Ali of Hyderabad and the Marathas. Haider Ali bought Marathas and succeeded in breaking the alliance and alluring the Nizam with territorial gains. Together with the Nizam he launched an attack on Arcot and later on the English by appearing at the gates of Madras.
The panic-stricken Madras government signed the Treaty of Madras on 4th April 1769, under which basis was mutual restitutition of each other’s territories and a defensive alliance, where the English committed to help Haider in case he was attacked by another power.
Hyder Ali, apparently emboldened by the agreement with the British, engaged in war with the Marathas in 1770, and requested British support when the Marathas penetrated Mysorean territory. The British refused to assist him, even though they were also drawn into conflict with the Marathas in the 1770s. Hyder’s battles did not fully end until 1779, when the Marathas negotiated an alliance with him and the nizam for united action against the British. This led to the beginning of the Second Anglo-Mysore War in 1780. This conflict devastated much of the Carnatic, and also failed to decisively resolve differences between Mysore and the British. Resolution occurred in 1799 with the defeat and killing of Hyder’s son Tipu, and the restoration of the Wodeyars as British clients.
The Second Anglo Mysore War (1780-84):
Battle fought Year: July 1780–1784
Treaty of Mangalore (Tipu Sultan and the British East India Company on 11 March 1784)
Winner: East India Company
Loser: Hyder Ali/ Tippu Sultan
The Second Anglo–Mysore War was a conflict between the Kingdom of Mysore and the British East India Company from 1780 to 1784.
Mutual distrust between the English and Haider Ali caused the Second Anglo Mysore War. Haider Ali accused the Company of not observing the terms of the defensive treaty when they refused to help him when the Marathas attacked Mysore in 1771. Furthermore, Haider Ali was helped by the French by meeting his military demands.
On international front, the outbreak of the American war of independence where French alliance with the American colonists was evident. These developments made Warren Hastings extremely suspicious of Haider Ali’s relations with the French. The , a French settlement which was within Haider’s protection. This led to the formation of an alliance by Haider Ali with the Hyderabad Nizam and the Marathas against the English Company in 1779.
The second Anglo Mysore War began in July 1780, when Haider attacked the Carnatic and captured Arcot by defeating an English army under Colonel Baillie. Meanwhile the English, detached the Marathas and Nizam from Haider’s side. After being deserted, Haider was defeated at Porto Novo in 1781.
In 1782, Haider died, leaving the task unfinished for his son, Tipu, who continued the war with English for another year. The war ended with the Treaty of Mangalore (March 1784) on the basis of mutual restitution of each other’s territories was agreed.
This was the second of four Anglo–Mysore Wars, which ultimately ended with British control over most of southern India. Pursuant to the terms of the Treaty of Mangalore, the British did not participate in the conflict between Mysore and its neighbors, the Maratha Empire and the Nizam of Hyderabad, that began in 1785. In Parliament, the Pitt administration passed the Pitt’s India Act that gave the government control of the East India Company in political matters.
The Third Anglo-Mysore War (1790-92):
Battle fought Year: July 1790 – 1792
Treaty of Seringapatam
8 March 1792, ended the Third Anglo-Mysore War. Its signatories included Lord Cornwallis on behalf of the British East India Company, representatives of the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Mahratta Empire, and Tipu Sultan, the ruler of Mysore.
The third Anglo Mysore War was caused by an attack on Travancore by Tipu, because he had differences with the Raja of Travancore in 1790. The English declared war against Tipu supporting the ruler of Travancore. They were helped by the Maratha and Nizam’s troops under the English army which was led by Cornwallis and marched towards Seringapatam (1792).
Tipu offered tough resistance but eventually signed the Treaty of Seringapatam in March 1792 resulting in the surrender of nearly half of Mysore territory to the victorious allies in Third Anglo Mysore War. Tipu also had to pay a war indemnity of over three crores rupees.
• The British hence acquired the areas of Baramahal, Dindigul and Malabar
• The Marathas gained territory on the Tungabhadra side
• The Nizam acquired territories stretching from river Krishna to beyond the Pennar.
The war resulted in a sharp curtailment of Mysore’s borders to the advantage of the Mahrattas, the Nizam of Hyderabad, and the Madras Presidency. The districts of Malabar, Salem, Bellary and Anantapur were ceded to the Madras Presidency.
The Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799):
• Name of the Battle: Fourth Anglo-Mysore War
• Venue: South India
• Year: 1799
• Winner: British East India Company
• Loser: Tipu Sultan, the King of Mysore
The Fourth Anglo–Mysore War was a conflict in South India between the Kingdom of Mysore against the British East India Company and the Hyderabad Deccan in 1798–99.
Under Wellesley, the Governor-General of English, it was demanded that Tipu Sultan give up his friendship with the French. In the Fourth War between Anglo-Mysore. Tipu Sultan died. English fought with the Marathas and the Nizam’s support in battlefield along with their own forces from Madras and Bombay converging.
In 1799, Seringapatam was taken and Tipu Sultan died fighting. Afterwards, Wellesley restored the Mysore kingdom to the old Wodeyar dynasty, after appropriating large portions of it for distribution among its allies Marathas, Nizam and the Company.
The fourth Mysore war was the last of the Anglo Mysore wars.
An indirect control of the capital of Tipu Sultan, Seringapatam and Mysore came under the hands of the British. They re-established the Wodeyar dynasty to the Mysore throne.
Fateh Ali, Tipu’s young successor, was sent into exile.
The Kingdom of Mysore became a princely state of British India.
The members of the family of Tipu Sultan were first kept at Vellore and later they were deported to Calcutta.
Importance of Tipu Sultan/ Contributions of Tipu Sultan:
Tipu Sultan was the only Indian ruler who recognised the importance of economic strength as foundation of military strength.
He established embassies to France, Turkey to develop foreign trade. He became a part of Jacobian club by planting the ‘tree of liberty’ at his capital Seringapatnam.