What is Secondary Sector?
Manufacturing and Industry sector is known as secondary sector. The secondary sector includes secondary processing of raw materials, food manufacturing, textile manufacturing and industry. It is often divided into heavy industry and light industry.
The secondary sector forms a substantial part of GDP, it creates values (goods) and it is the engine of economic growth and is crucial for all economies. List of Manufacturing and Industry sector or secondary sector is as follows:
Iron and Steel Industry
• The location of steel industry is generally oriented to one or the other raw material sources, mainly iron ore or coal.
• However, recent technological developments in transport as well as processing, the use of scrap as raw material and agglomeration economies make market location, especially coastal areas makes it advantageous
- TISCO: Jamshedpur (Singhbhum district, Jharkhand),
- IISCO (Burnpur, Hirapur, Kalti),
- VISL (Bhadravati),
- Salem: Tamil Nadu.
- Vishakhapatnam: first integrated plant in the coastal area
Aluminum Industry :
Aluminum Industry in India is one of the leading industries in the Indian economy. The main operations of the India aluminum industry is mining of ores, refining of the ore, casting, alloying, sheet, and rolling into foils. India is the sixth largest producer of bauxite and ninth largest producer of alumina in the world.
• Locational Factors:
a) Aluminum is a raw material oriented industry as it grossly weight loosing.
b) Bauxite is the basic raw material in the aluminum manufacturing process. Bauxite is converted into alumina in alumina refineries.
c) Due to the high quality of bauxite and close proximity between bauxite mines and alumina refineries, the cost of bauxite to Indian producer is one-third of that of global producers.
e) The reduction of bauxite into alumina requires heavy amount of energy. Therefore, beside nearness to bauxite deposits, cheap availability of power is the major consideration in the location of this industry.
• Major Production Centers
a) Korba b) Renukoot (c) Belgaum d) Aluva (e) Mettur (f) Ratnagiri (g) Nalco
• Petro-chemicals industry is one of the fastest growing industries of India. This industry has revolutionized the industrial scene by providing the products which are substituting the traditional raw materials like wood, glass and metals.
• India is self-sufficient in the production of petrochemicals.
• Petro-chemicals are derived from petroleum or natural gas. We use a variety of products from morning till evening made from petrochemicals such as Crayons, Detergents, Dyes, Fertilizers, Perfumes, Wax etc.
- The location pattern of existing as well as those proposed clearly indicates that the refineries seek mostly sea board location to take advantages of the imported crude or the crude produced by the offshore oil field.
- Other trend is raw material based on inland oilfield.
- Further, more government policy has played an important role in setting up of certain market based refineries like Mathura.
Fertilizer Industry :
• The fertility of the soil is the most important factor in agriculture. It depends upon phosphorus, potassium, nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, Sulphur, and others in proper amounts.
• Phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen are the principal elements in fertilizer industry which is an important branch of chemical industry. The fertilizer manufacture is chiefly dependent on three principal raw materials: phosphate, potash, and nitrogen.
• Nitrogen provides vital foods for plants and sustenance for human life. Ironically, in the form of nitric acid as an ingredient of munitions and explosives, it causes enormous destruction.
Localization & Distribution:
- The localization of fertilizer industry is closely related to petrochemicals. About 70 per cent of the plants producing nitrogenous fertilizer use naphtha as the basic raw material.
- Phosphatic fertilizer plants are primarily dependent upon mineral ‘phosphate’ which is available in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan.
- Sulphur is another important mineral used for manufacturing fertilizers. This is available in Tamil Nadu.
- Gujarat is the largest producer of fertilizers in India and accounts for more than one- fourth of the total production of nitrogenous as well as Phosphatic fertilizers of the country.
Drugs and Pharmaceutical Industry
• The pharmaceutical industry is one of the oldest in India. The Indian pharmaceutical industry is at the top of the chart amongst India’s science- based industries with wide ranging capabilities in the complex field of drug manufacture and technology.
• The drugs and pharmaceutical units are mostly located in Kolkata, Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Delhi, Pune, Rishikesh, Hyderabad, Kanpur, Indore and Jaipur.
• It ranges from simple headache pills to sophisticated antibiotics and complex cardiac compounds, almost every type of medicine is now made by the Indian pharmaceutical industry.
- Manufacturing of cement requires heavy, low value and weight loosing materials and is primarily a raw material oriented industry.
- The availability of raw materials, bulk transport facilities at reasonably low cost and market are the three main localization factors, which favor the growth of cement industry in India.
- Limestone is the main raw material and comprises 60-65 per cent of the total product. On an average 1.5 tons of limestone are required to produce one tons of cement. Hence, the location of a cement plant is based on the limestone deposits.
- The other raw materials used are sea shells, slag from steel plants and slag from fertilizer plants and these raw materials influence the localization of cement industry in their own way.
Distribution of Cement Industry
A) India ranks second in the world next only to China in the production of cement.
B) It is because of constraint of raw material that 86 per cent of the factories and 75 per cent of the production capacity is found in Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Bihar.